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RaceRunner Classification

The RaceRunner Classification is a functional system. The athletes are assessed in the RaceRunner to determine the functional use of their extremities operating the Racerunner.

A bench test is also used to determine, the type and degree of the motor and neurological problem.


RaceRunning is a sport open to athletes that can not functionally walk or have severely limited functional walking. The athletes with limited functional walking should not be able to participate competitively in ambulatory track or field athletics.


The RaceRunning athlete has movement difficulties due to the moderate/severe effect of spasticity, athetosis, dystonia, or ataxia or a combination of these. The movement difficulties result  in reduced coordination and difficulties with isolated movements of the limbs.


The RaceRunning Classification System is an independent system and has no direct relation with the CP classes.

Athlete Profiles: 

RaceRunning Class 1 (RR1):

Athletes with severe athetoid, spastic, ataxic dystonic or mixed quadriplegia are in this class.

  • The RR1 will have severe involvement in the lower extremities and trunk and moderate to severe involvement in the upper extremities.
  • Only gross patterns of movement, flexion, and extension, with ineffective leg propulsion are observed.
  • Athletes with spasticity would have grade 3 and /0r 4 in lower extremities- grade 3 in the upper extremities on the ASAS.
  • Severe difficulty isolating individual joint movements in the lower extremities.
  • There is poor control of the stride.
  • Foot drag, severe asymmetry, or no alternate leg movements may be seen.
  • Upper extremities have poor control and strapping may be necessary for hand placement.
  • Startle reflex may limit the start.
  • Severe difficulties in co-ordination of functional running movement, severely limited hand function, and poor trunk stability characterize this class.

RaceRunning Class 2 (RR2):

Athletes with moderate involvement in the upper extremities and trunk with moderate to severe involvement of the lower extremities are in this class.

  • Spasticity, athetosis, ataxia, dystonia or weakness limits effective pushing movements of the lower extremities.
  • Asymmetric stride pattern, but more effective than RR1

Those athletes with spasticity would have grade 2 or 3 on the ASAS in the lower extremities, or grade 3 in at least I lower extremity.  Upper extremities – grade 2 or 3  in at least one upper extremity.

  • Minimal to no foot drag.
  • May need strapping of one or both hands on handlebars.
  • Spasticity, limited range of motion, athetosis, asymmetry, weakness or a combination of these, in the lower extremities, limits stride effectiveness.
  • Bilateral alternating, unilateral, and simultaneous leg push will be effective but limited by range of motion, spasticity, or athetosis.
  • Startle reflex may be present.
  • Asymmetry or limited range of motion, poor coordination in the lower extremities, fair trunk and upper extremity control, along with limited stride effectiveness characterize this class.

Racerunning Class 3 (RR3)

Athletes with mild to moderate involvement in one or both upper extremities, fair to good trunk balance and moderate involvement in the lower extremities are in this class.

  • Symmetrical or slight asymmetrical — alternate leg movement with good push-off.
  • Effective start with good acceleration — no startle reflex.
  • Those athletes with spasticity would have grade 1, 2, or 3 on ASAS.
  • Usually able to move foot, knee and ankle joints independently.
  • Adequate steering and braking with the upper extremities usually without strapping.
  • Hip and knee contractures may limit stride length.
  • Athletes with athetosis in this class may show a smoother movement pattern as there speed increases.
  • Asymmetry or moderate coordination difficulties in the lower extremities, moderate to good    steering and trunk function in the Racerunner, and effective start with good acceleration characterize this class.


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